Monday, 22 August 2011

surah baqarah verse 133-141

133. Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya'qub (Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We shall worship your Ilah (God - Allah), the Ilah (God) of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaque (Isaac), One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam)."

134. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

135. And they say, "Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided." Say (to them, O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Nay, (We follow) only the religion of Ibrahim (Abraham),   [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone)], and he was not of Al-Mushrikun (those who worshipped others along with Allah )."

136. Say (O Muslims), "We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaque (Isaac), Ya'qub (Jacob), and to Al-Asbat [the twelve sons of Ya'qub (Jacob)], and that which has been given to Musa (Moses) and 'Iesa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam)."

137. So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

138. [Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (Religion) of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allah's? And we are His worshippers. 

139. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to the Jews and Christians), "Dispute you with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders)."

140. Or say you that Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaque (Isaac), Ya'qub (Jacob) and Al-Asbat [the twelve sons of Ya'qub (Jacob)] were Jews or Christians? Say, "Do you know better or does Allah (knows better...; that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him when he comes, written in their Books.he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do."

141. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.


It is said that the Yahoods used to tell the Holy Prophet (pbuh) that it was Hazrat Yaqoob's last wish that they should all stay yahoodis even after his death. Hence the Yahoods raised this issue that how can the Holy Prophet(pbuh) ask them to be Muslims when their father , their ancestor Hazrat Yaqoob had instructed them not to leave their faith and rather stay Yahoods. But this was just another of their baseless excuses as Allah says that were they present at the time of the death of Hazrat Yaqoob. this indicates that these people who were creating hurdles for the Holy prophet (pbuh) were obviously  neither born nor present at the time of the death of Hazrat Yaqoob. Hence it was just a made up story on their part. Allah tells them that they were not there when hazrat Yaqoob asked his sons that who will they worship after his death? His sons replied that they would worship the one and only God who is the Lord of everyone be it Hazrat Yaqoob, Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Ismail or Hazrat Isaac. They all followed the same Allah and it is the same Allah , the sons of Hazrat Yaqoob promised to worship.
the yahoods used to say that since they are from the progeny of Hazrat Ibrahim, the hell fire wont touch them, Hazrat Ibrahim would save them from it. Allah replies that they were a nation that passed away and they would get the reward according to what they earned and did in this world. and what Hazrat Ibrahim and the prophets did, it wont benefit their people because everyone would get what they earned and and they wont be asked about what others did they would only be asked about what they did.
the Jews and Christians said that become either Jews or Christians and then only you would be guided. Allah tells the Holy prophet pbuh to tell that they follow only the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim who worshipped only one Allah and he was not amongst the disbelievers who engaged in Shirk. Yahoods said that Hazrat Ibrahim was Yahoodi and Christians said that Hazrat Ibrahim was a christian but Allah tells them that Hazrat Ibrahim was neither rather he was a staunch believer and worshipper of the One Allah- the Creator of all.
the muslims are being told to reply to the Yahoods and the Christians by saying that we believe in Allah and what He sent down to Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Ismail, Hazrat Isaac , Hazrat Yaqoob and the 12 sons of Hazrat Yaqoob and that which has been given to Hazrat Musa and Hazrat Isa and all other prophets by their Allah. and that the Muslims do not differentiate between the messengers of Allah and have wholly submitted themselves to Allah.
So if they believe in everything the Muslims believe in then they are on the right path and if they turn away then they are in opposition but the Muslims should not fear them because Allah alone is sufficient for help against them.
the religion of Muslims is the religion of the colour of Allah, the colour of love for Allah, the color of the connection with Allah and what is better than the color of Allah. The color of Allah refers to the entire attitude towards anything and everything in life. the real color of Allah or the real attitude in life arises as a result of true faith.
Allah tells the Holy Prophet pbuh to ask the yahoods and the christians that do they argue with them about Allah, the One Lord who is the Lord of everyone then what is the dispute about.  the yahoods and christians will be rewarded for their deeds and the muslim for theirs and none shall be answerable for the other. And the muslims believe and worship only one Lord.
The Yahoods and the christians are being asked that are they saying that Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Ismail, Hazrat Isaac, Hazrat Yaqoob and his 12 sons were yahoods or christians? (the jewish religion started somewhere between 3 B.C and 4B.C  and christianity took birth at the time of Hazrat Isa so obviously Hazrat Ibrahim and his sons were neither christians nor Yahoods). Are they more knowledgeable or Allah. and they are unfair since they concealed the truth from the people when it was explicitly mentioned in their Book that a prophet will come but they refused to accept him even though they recognized him and they hid this truth from others.
Allah again gives a stern reminder that everyone shall be rewarded for whatever  deeds they performed and no one will be answerable for the deeds of others.

Monday, 15 August 2011

surah baqarah verse 123-132

123. And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped.

124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) [i.e., Allah] tried him with (certain) Commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allah) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you a leader (Prophet) of mankind." [Ibrahim (Abraham)] said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders)." (Allah) said, "My Covenant (Prophethood, etc.) includes not Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)."

125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibrahim (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka'bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak'at after the Tawaf of the Ka'bah at Makkah), and We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma'il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I'tikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).

126. And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day." He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!"

127. And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) and (his son) Isma'il (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily! You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower."

128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage - Hajj and 'Umrah, etc.), and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

129. "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allah answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'an) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islamic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise."

130. And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

131. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)."

132. And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya'qub (Jacob), (saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islam (as Muslims - Islamic Monotheism)."

Tafseer :

It is said that the birth of rational thinking started from Hazrat Ibrahim. He was the one who questioned the very rationality of worshipping idols as his people used to do. He said these idols can neither hear,speak, see or move, hence they cannot be God. Thus he started on his quest for the search for Allah. By the Grace of Allah he was guided towards the truth and when he tried to inform his people and his parents about the existence of Allah, he was ridiculed and mocked. one day when everyone in the town had gone to attend some festival he stayed back on some excuse and broke all the idols except the biggest one and hung the hammer in the hands of the biggest idol. When the people returned they were shocked and confused but even then the they denied the message Hazrat Ibrahim tried to convey to them. everyone including his father turned against him.
Hazrat Ibrahim thus had to migrate, hence he went to Makkah where he had a son named Hazrat Ismail. Then Allah told him to leave his wife and son in the deserted valley of Makkah and return to Palestine. He left his wife and son there with no food and no water and his wife asked him that is it the command of Allah to leave them there? He replied yes it is. His wife said that in that case Allah wont let this sacrifice go waste. Years later when Hazrat Ibrahim returns to Makkah and his son has grown up to be 13 years old, Allah commands him to sacrifice his son(the son which Allah blessed him after many prayers) by running a knife through his neck. Hazrat Ibrahim blindfolds himself (so that his fatherly love doesnt stop him from obeying the command of Allah) and runs the knife over his son's neck but Allah saves Hazrat Ismail and in his place sends a ram(male sheep) who is thus sacrificed.
hazrat Ibrahim had to leave his home, his parents, his homecountry,was thrown into fire (but saved by Allah), had to desert his child and wife and was told to sacrifice his son. and he sacrificed everything without once asking "why". as a reward for all his sacrifices Allah made him the Imam of all mankind. today all religions respect Hazrat Ibrahim and there is absolutely no conflict regarding his status be it any religion. but the biggest reward he received from Allah was the title of being the friend of Allah. In Quran Allah has called hazrat Ibrahim as His Khalil(friend).
it's a natural phenomeneon that when a person receives a blessing he immediately thinks of his children. Similarly when Hazrat Ibrahim was made the Imam of all mankind he asked Allah that He will also make Imams from his progeny wont He?But Allah replied that His promise does not extend to the wrongdoers unjust.(Hazrat Ibrahim had quite a few children with the eldest being Hazrat Ismail and the youngest being Hazrat Isaac. Allah gave a high status to the pious children of Hazrat Ibrahim).
Allah took a very important and honourable work from Hazrat Ibrahim by getting the Kaaba constructed by him. Before Hazrat Ibrahim the Kaaba had been built by the angels, then by Hazrat Adam, it was built again after being destroyed by the storm during the time of Hazrat Noah and thus it was the 4th time that it was being constructed when hazrat Ibrahim was entrusted with this task. Kaaba is the only construction in the world which has blessings and rewards even for only looking at it. It is said that the stone, standing on which Hazrat Ibrahim built the Kaaba, that stone had been brought from the Heavens. That stone with the footprints of Hazrat Ibrahim is still intact and Allah has commanded believers to pray 2 rakat Nafal prayers near that place after performing the Tawaaf of Kaaba. Such prestigious status has been given to Hazrat Ibrahim that the stone bearing his footprints has been made a place of worship for the entire Muslim Ummah. Allah commanded Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismail to keep the Kaaba pure from all sorts of impurity(garbage) be it the physical impurity or impurity in the form of acts of Shirk, violence so that the place is pure for worship by the believers who prostrate and perform sujood and pray there.
Hazrat Ibrahim prayed to Allah for peace, security and food for only the believers of Allah but Allah said that He would provide for even the non-believers for only a little while before tormenting him with his final abode of Hell fire ( this goes to show that even if things are perfectly well in this world it does not necessarily mean that Allah is happy with the people in question. It may just be that Allah is giving them a chance to come back on track.)
Even after being blessed with the honour of being responsible for building the House of Allah, there was no arrogance or haughtiness in Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismail rather they were praying for the acceptance of their efforts. They prayed that Oh Allah make us obedient and raise Muslim Ummah from our progeny (thus the muslim ummah today is a result of the prayers of Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismail). They prayed to Allah to tell them the ways of worship of Allah (asking for knowledge).
They also prayed to Allah to send a messenger to mankind from their progeny who would guide people through the message and ayats of Allah, would convey the message of Quran and give them complete knowledge of Islam (Allah accepted this prayer as well by sending Hazrat Mohammad as the last messenger and made his Sunnah and Hadith a source of knowledge for the entire muslim ummah).
The yahoods accepted the religion being preached by Hazrat Ibrahim but when Holy Prophet preached the same religion, they engaged in conflicts primarily because they resented the fact that Holy Prophet was not from Bani Israel.
Allah chose Hazrat Ibrahim as being among the pious people in this world as well as in the hereafter. such is the love of Allah for Hazrat Ibrahim that He preserved even his footprints and made it a place of worship. Hazrat Ibrahim was worthy of this prestigious and honourable status in the eyes of Allah because he followed all the commandments of Allah without questioning and complaining. and this same form of submission was enjoined by Hazrat Ibrahim on his sons and by Hazrat Yaqoob whereby they told their children to feel honoured as Allah has chosen the most perfect religion for them and to die as none but Muslims- as followers of the faith

Saturday, 13 August 2011

surah baqarah verse 112-122

112. Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah's Religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allah's sake only without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc., and in accordance with the Sunnah of Allah's Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon him ) then his reward is with his Lord (Allah), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

113. The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.

114. And who is more unjust than those who forbid that Allah's Name be glorified and mentioned much (i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) in Allah's Mosques and strive for their ruin? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allah's Mosques) except in fear. For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter.

115. And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn yourselves or your faces there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely! Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knowing.

116. And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son (children or offspring). Glory be to Him (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him.

117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : "Be!" - and it is.

118. And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us?" So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.

119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) with the truth (Islam), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, they will enter the Hell-fire). And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.
120. Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.
121. Those (who embraced Islam from Bani Israel) to whom We gave the Book [the Taurat (Torah)] [or those (Muhammad's Peace be upon him companions) to whom We have given the Book (the Qur'an)] recite it (i.e. obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones that believe therein. And whoso disbelieves in it (the Qur'an), those are they who are the losers.
122. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamin (mankind and jinns) (of your time-period, in the past).

those who surrender and submit themselves to Allah and perform good deeds for the Sole purpose of pleasing Allah rather than to show off and attain fame and praises of people, his rewards will be with Allah and he need not fear.
the christians felt that they were the loved ones of Allah and that the Yahood were worth nothing. On the other hand, the Yahoods felt that they were on the right path and the christians were astray. The christians said that since the Yahood had tried to kill Hazrat Isa and had not accepted him as the messenger of Allah, hence they cannot be the loved ones of Allah. Then those who had no knowledge of the Book(the habitants of Makkah at that time) , they used to talk in a similar manner. they considered themselves to be pious and from the progeny of Hazrat Ibrahim and hence they considered the Yahood and the christians to be worthless in the eyes of Allah. for them reading and conveying the message of the book was not important, rather for them the good deeds were limited to performing hajj, providing water for the pilgrims and looking after the House of Allah. hence everyone(those who read the Book of Allah and those who didnt) were all at the same level.
when the Christians took over Bait ul Muqaddas, they kicked out all the Yahoods and even when Hazrat Umer conquered it, at the time of handing over the keys, this condition was stated that the Yahoods should not be allowed there.
The people of Makkah made Holy Prophet(pbuh) and his companions leave Makkah and at the time of Hudaibiya when the Holy Prophet wanted to perform Tawaaf of Kaaba, the people of Makkah refused and told him to come next year.
Allah says there no one can be more unjust and unfair than those who stop people from coming to Allah's house of worship and prevent them from the worship of Allah. for such people there is severe disgrace in this world and torment in the hereafter. (the disgrace of the world has been witnessed already when in 8th hijri Makkah got conquered and the people of Makkah lost their control over the House of Kaaba which had been their cause of arrogance. Similarly rome was ruled by christians but when it was conquered during the time of Hazrat Umer it put an end to their era of rule and control even of the Bait ul Muqadddas.)
although it is compulsory to turn the face towards Qibla for the obligatory prayers but Allah says that no matter whichever direction you turn in, you will find Allah. This verse is a starter for the change of Qibla to be explained ahead. the qibla was going to change from jerusalem to Kaaba and conspiracies and issues were bound to arise, hence Allah says here that be it east or west, every direction belongs to Allah Himself. The fixing of qibla is only for convenience so that there is unanimity and unity among the muslim ummah whereby they face the same direction no matter wherever in the world in they are.
The christians used to say that Hazrat Isa is the son of Allah (nauzubillah). To this Allah replies that He is pure, He owns everything in the heavens and the earth and He is above all to whom everyone surrenders in obedience and submission.
Then its said that Allah created everything from scratch i.e. everything has been created out of nothing. there was nothing to create it from yet He kept creating and He is the creator of the heavens and the earth from nothing. He just says "Be" and it becomes. His command is sufficient and all that is required.
Then Allah talks about the people of Makkah that they complained that why does Allah not speak to them, why do they not receive any signs or miracles.all the people to whom Allah sent His messengers,they all said they same thing. for those who believe there are clear signs and guidance through Holy Prophet pbuh who brought the Truth to everyone with the glad tidings of Heaven for those who believe in the word of Allah and warns the disbelievers about hell being their abode. and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) will not be questioned about the disbelievers because they had been given the option and they chose to become the dwellers of Hell.
Then Allah is telling the Holy Prophet pbuh that the christians and the yahoods would never believe in the message of Allah he brings to them, unless he accepts their ways and beliefs. their arrogance would never let them follow the ways of the Prophet so he should not expect them to do so.Allah tells the Holy Prophet(pbuh) that even after acquiring the Truth if SUPPOSEDLY the Holy Prophet manages to get dissuaded by their scholars and their people then he should remember that there is no bigger protector, guardian and friend other than Allah.
those who have been blessed with the Book of Allah and who read it like its supposed to be read are the true believers. how is it supposed to be read is the real question. there are certain rights of the Quran which need to be given:
  • belief in it that indeed it is the Book of Allah.
  • reciting it with proper pronounciations (tajweed, makharij etc)
  • understanding the meaning
  • pondering over whatever is being said in the Book
  • acting on it. implementing its commandments in daily life
  • spreading the word and knowledge to others

and those who disbelieve in Quran and do not give it its proper rights, they will suffer losses.
althought originally this verse was for the Christians and Yahood (where Torah, Zaboor and Injeel would be the Book in question) but it refers to Muslims as well( where the Book in question is Quran).
At the end Allah once again reminds the Bani Israel of the numerous blessings of Allah on them. they were made rulers, prophets came from within them, they were blessed with the book of Allah(Torah) and most importantly Allah chose them for spreading His message to the world, to work for His religion.

Friday, 12 August 2011

verse 104-111

104. O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger Peace be upon him ) Ra'ina but say Unzurna (Do make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment.

105. Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikun (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allah chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

106. Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allah is able to do all things?

107. Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allah you have neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

108. Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord?) And he who changes Faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

109. Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His Command. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.

110. And perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, and whatever of good (deeds that Allah loves) you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah. Certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what you do.

111. And they say, "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Produce your proof if you are truthful."


these verses are now being directed at the believers(Ahl-e-Iman). The Holy Prophet(pbuh) used to hold sermons and whenever a listener or a companion of the Prophet(pbuh) failed to understand anything they would say Ra'ina (be considerate towards us as we are weak).  the Yahood changed this word into Ra'iinaa (oh our shepherd) . these words they addressed to the Holy Prophet so Allah said to the believers that they should stop using this word altogether and rather say Unzurna (make us understand). Allah went on to say that rather the believers should pay attention for the first time when something is being said. Allah took this approach of rectifying and changing the ways and habits of the believers rather than warning the Yahoods to pull their act together and act sensibly.
the christians, Yahood and the non believers didnt want the believers to receive any blessing or gift of Allah. Here the blessing refers to prophethood. the non-believers resented the fact that why worship only One God and the People of the Book(Christians and Yahoods) resented that prophethood was sent on Bani Ismail and not on them.
The Yahood raised the issues that:
1. If Quran is the Book of Allah then why is it different from the previous book i.e. the Torah. why do commandments follow one after the other?
2. if the Torah is the Book of Allah then why is there the need for another book (Quran).

Allah is responding to the isssues raised by Yahood in these verses by saying that Allah does not cause the previous verses and the words of Allah to be abrogated or forgotten , rather He brings better commandments that are similar to the previous ones. The reason for this is that the Muslim Ummah was undergoing social,mental and intellectual evolution at that time and hence a an evolution in the Shariah was also required.
the biggest logic of Islam is the gradual advent of any command. one after the other commandment is received to eventually reach the final commandment for instance in the case of declaring wine to be forbidden and Haram and many other such examples. These are all the wisdom of Allah and we with our limited knowledge and intelligence cannot possibly attempt to understand the wisdom behind the doings of Allah SubhanatAllah. And He is the sole creator and authority over the heavens and the earth and there is no protector, helper or guardian other than Him.
When Hazrat Musa told the Yahood to sacrifice a cow (as in the previous verses) the indulged in asking unnecessary and excessive questions.this ayat may also be addressed to Muslims( an incident where a person asked the Holy Prophet(pbuh) that is it compulsory to perform Hajj every year. The Prophet(pbuh) stayed quiet even when the question was repeated again. When asked for the third time, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said that if he says yes it would become compulsory and hence a burden on the believers and Allah does not want to burden them.) The believers are being told in this verse not to engage in excessive and unnecessary questions and since it would not only waste the time of the preacher but also dissuade him from his real work. Excessive questions move the believers away from the right path.
The non believers wanted to trick the believers and move them away from the Truth, instigate them against Islam and bring them on the path of kufr (disbelieving). they did this solely because of envy and jealousy which took birth within them after the teachings of the Truth. In this situation it would have been totally natural for the believers to retaliate but Allah stopped them and told them to forgive the believers and let them do whatever they want until further commandment(i.e. truimph of Islam) from Allah is received. And perform Salah and give zakat and do good deeds so that they may be rewarded by Allah.

the christians were convinced that they will go to Heaven and the Yahoods were under the same impression. Allah tells them to bring forth any evidence whereby Allah promised them such a blessing. Heaven is meant for those who do good deeds and who submit themselves solely to Allah.